Good land is a mixture of organic matter, sand, silt and clay, and the amount of each component is important. Very sandy soil does not hold water well, and an over abundance of clay holds too much.
Other important characteristics are the depth of the soil and its ability to bind nutrients for plant use.. .The following are qualities of good farming land.
Texture and Water-Holding Capacity
Loam soil, often considered the best type of farmland, is a mixture of organic matter, sand, silt and clay that has no more than 20 percent clay (montmorillonite type) and no more than 40 percent sand or 40 percent silt. Loamy soil will hold 5.8 inches/foot water at saturation, of which between 2 and 2.8 inches/foot will be available for plant use. Poorer-quality soils contain more sand or clay relative to the amount of organic matter and silt.
Plants need proper nutrients to grow and produce. Thus, good soil must be capable of binding nutrients for future uptake by plant roots. Loam soils with high organic content hold nutrients best, so good farmland will have organic matter making-up 5 percent of its composition.
Soil Depth, Structure and Porosity
Rooting needs differ for various crops, and the depth of the soil is part of judging which crops to plant. For example, corn roots grow downward to a depth of 4 feet or more. Good soil will have enough porosity to allow air flow in the root area and a moderate amount of percolation.
Good land for growing different crops:
Maze has the third largest acreage among cultivated crops in the world (209 million acres). Land conditions best for corn growing are also good for many other crops. Between 18 and 22 inches of available soil moisture are needed during the growing season for corn to reach maximum yields.
Wheat covers more land area in food production worldwide (300 million acres) than any other crop. In the United States, 70 percent of wheat growing takes place in the area from Texas to Minnesota and west to Montana. This region has favorable climate conditions but less water, making it good land for growing wheat where alternative uses would not be as profitable. Also in Kenya wheat grows around rift valley areas where there is favorable climate conditions but less water to sustain the growth of wheat.
A clay-base layer is the best type of farmland where rice is grown in flooded fields. Rice is the second largest cultivated crop in the world, at 230 million acres in production. Most is grown with flooding technologies that require very low water percolation rates for best results. For example Rice grown in Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme, and parts of western Kenya are areas with excellent conditions for